Prostate Cancer

 

The prostate gland is located in males between the penis and the bladder. Prostate Cancer occurs in the prostate gland which is a part of the male reproductive system. It is one of the most common forms of cancer that is found in males. Most of the prostate gland grows slowly and does not extend outside the prostate gland. However, some might grow aggressively and spread fast. Prostate cancer that is diagnosed at an early stage has the best chance for successful treatment. MRI is done in case the cancer has spread out of the prostate.

Symptoms:

  • Having trouble urinating
  • Having blood in the urine
  • Having blood in the semen
  • Pain in the bone
  • Appetite loss
  • Reduced flow of urine
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Pain in the hips, upper thighs, or lower back

Blue Ribbon, Prostate Cancer, Prostate Cancer Awareness

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Types of Prostate Cancer:

Mostly, prostate cancer is adenocarcinomas (malignant tumors). While some other forms could be –

  • Small cell carcinomas
  • Transitional cell carcinomas
  • Neuroendocrine tumors
  • Sarcomas

Stages of Prostate Cancer:

Prostate cancer is categorized into four stages –

Stage 1: When cancer is present only in the prostate gland.

Stage 2: When cancer is still in the prostate but a person has a higher PSA level.

Stage 3: When cancer may have spread to the tissues nearby.

Stage 4: When cancer may have spread to the various parts of the body.

Risk factors:

  • Age
  • Ethnicity
  • Obesity
  • Family history
  • Diet
  • Genetic factors
  • Smoking
  • Consuming alcohol
  • Chemical exposure
  • Prostate inflammation
  • Vasectomy surgery

Prevention:

  • Eat a proper and healthy diet
  • Maintain body weight
  • Get prostate screenings done regularly
  • Stop smoking

Diagnosis:

Tests done in the early stage are –

PSA Test

Free PSA Test

DRE

Biomarker Tests

If there is any abnormality in the PSA and DRE test, then the following tests are done –

Biopsy

MRI fusion biopsy

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)

To find out if cancer has spread out of the prostate –

Whole-body bone scan

CT or CAT scan

MRI

PET or PET-CT scan

Treatment:

Surgery is done to remove the prostate gland and involves techniques like making a long incision in the abdomen or many small incisions in the abdomen.

Radiation therapy is used to treat prostate cancer and involves treatment such as external beam radiation and brachytherapy.

Ablative therapies are used to damage the prostate tissue like freezing prostate tissue and heating prostate tissue.

Hormone therapy is also done to stop the body from producing testosterone, block the testosterone from reaching the cancer cells, and do surgery to remove the testicles.

Chemotherapy is done to kill rapidly growing cells.

Immunotherapy is done to help the immune system in attacking the cells. It involves helping immune system cells identify cancer and engineering them to fight cancer cells.

Targeted drug therapy is done on any abnormality present in the cancer cell.

 

Source:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353093

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150086#diagnosis

https://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/prostate-cancer#Treatment

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/8634-prostate-cancer

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Author Since:  March 24, 2022

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